Statistics is the discipline that concerns the process of learning about the world through the analysis of data. The mathematical foundation of Statistics lies in the theory of Probability, the extension of logical reasoning to situations involving uncertainty – a setting that includes most of the difficult and interesting questions in life. Probability and Statistical Inference are subjects of keen intellectual interest in their own right, as well as being among the most applicable of mathematical areas. In addition to quantifying uncertainty and providing a basis for sound inferences and decisions, Statistics is key to the scientific method, and applications of Statistics pervade the natural and social sciences. The discipline is still actively developing and growing, with advances continually occurring in the theory, methodology, and applications.